Haemorrhoid: Introduction
Haemorrhoids, also known as Piles, are masses of swollen venous tissue near the anus. There are two main veins, one is near the rectum and the other is just under the skin layer outside your anus.

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Haemorrhoids: Causes
No one knows why haemorrhoids enlarge, though there are several theories. Some of these theories are:
-Inadequate fibre intake
-Too much sitting on the toilet
But none of these theories have been experimentally proven. Pregnancy has also been theorized as a cause of enlarged haemorrhoids, though this has still not been proven. Increased pressures in the veins are also stated to give a rise in haemorrhoid formation.
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Haemorrhoids: Symptoms
Symptoms of haemorrhoids vary. Internal haemorrhoids don’t usually cause symptoms though they cause symptoms mainly when they are infected or start to internally bleed. Bleeding from an internal haemorrhoid is usually free of pain.
External haemorrhoids are generally painful; they can cause itching when inflamed and are filled with blood (thrombosed). When inflamed, an external haemorrhoid and internal haemorrhoid can cause blood clots.
Haemorrhoids: Treatments
During a mild cause of internal haemorrhoids an increased amount of fibre intake can decrease the chances of constipation so pain will be reduced. In larger haemorrhoids, an injection of sclerosand liquid is needed to shrink the haemorrhoid. Tying a rubber band on the haemorrhoid will also work, it slowly stops blood flow into the haemorrhoid and the haemorrhoid will eventually die and go away, this process is called rubber band ligation. In some cases, internal haemorrhoids may need surgery to be removed and an external haemorrhoids may need to be cut off.
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Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing 3rd Edition
Linda S. WILLIAMS and Paula D. HOPPER
Published in 2005 by F. A. Davis Company in the U. S. A
Pg. 706 (Haemorrhoids)
Family Health & Medical Library vol. 5 (Gly-Iri)
Writers unstated
Published by Bay Books in New South Wales
Pgs. 791-792 (Haemorrhoids)
Oral Information
Dr. Yvonne Nuryani Sukri
Viewed 28/06/11